Like many carotenoids, astaxanthin is a lipid -soluble pigment. Its red-orange colour is due to the extended chain of conjugated alternating double and single double bonds at the centre of the compound. This chain of conjugated double bonds is also responsible for the antioxidant function of astaxanthin as well as other carotenoids as it results in a region of decentralized electrons that can be donated to reduce a reactive oxidizing molecule. Astaxanthin is a blood-red pigment and is produced naturally in the freshwater microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and the yeast fungus Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous also known as Phaffia. When the algae is stressed by lack of nutrients, increased salinity, or excessive sunshine, it creates astaxanthin. Animals who feed on the algae, such as salmon, red trout, red sea bream, flamingos, and crustaceans i.
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Naturally, we are very excited to introduce AstaPure astaxanthin to our Pure Essentials range, launching in March! New research is coming out daily suggesting astaxanthin is a highly effective tool in combating age-related diseases and cardiovascular disease, as well as boosting the immune system, liver and brain function.
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Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab Lond. It is estimated that the synthetic form would need to be provided in doses 20—50 times greater than the natural form to achieve the same benefits Capelli, B.
Synthetic astaxanthin is significantly inferior to algal-based astaxanthin as an antioxidant and may not be suitable as a human nutraceutical supplement Nutrafoods 12 Esterification In nature, astaxanthin it is found either conjugated with proteins e.
Astaxanthin antioxidant impact on excessive reactive oxygen species generation induced by ischemia and reperfusion injury. Chem Biol Interact. Oral bioavailability of the antioxidant astaxanthin in humans is enhanced by incorporation of lipid based formulations. Eur J Pharm Sci. Astaxanthin mechanisms of action Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol.
Furthermore, astaxanthin as with all carotenoids is not destroyed during the process of neutralising free radicals, meaning that it can repeatedly quench singlet oxygen molecules. Quenching activities of common hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants against singlet oxygen using chemiluminescence detection system.
Carotenoid Science. Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Altern Med Rev. Review Oxidative stress and astaxanthin: The novel supernutrient carotenoid. Therefore, these products only deliver 0. Absorption and digestion of astaxanthin The absorption of astaxanthin is similar to that of dietary lipids or fat-soluble vitamins: 1.
Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls. Mar Drugs. Potential role of carotenoids as antioxidants in human health and disease. Pharmacokinetics Pharmacokinetic studies are limited; however, in an open labeled study, three middle- aged male volunteers years ingested a single meal containing first a mg dose of astaxanthin followed by a dose of mg after 4 weeks Coral-Hinostroza GN, Ytrestoyl T, Ruyter B, Bjerkeng B.
The plasma astaxanthin concentration-time curves were measured over 76 hours. Maximum levels of astaxanthin Cmax for the low dose was 0. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. Furthermore, in a separate study, taking astaxanthin after food rather than before food improved the bioavailability of astaxanthin supplements by 2-fold An open-label clinical study of the toxicity and efficacy of an astaxanthin-rich H. Preliminary clinical evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of a new astaxanthin- rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. The protective effects of astaxanthin are associated with its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effects.
Astaxanthin is a safe nutrient, with no toxic effects when it is consumed with food. Furthermore, as a fat-soluble compound, astaxanthin is able to effectively pass through the BBB.
Therefore, astaxanthin is an excellent candidate for treating neurological diseases. There have been no safety concerns noted so far in human clinical studies where astaxanthin has been administered. As astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant and is associated with membrane preservation, it may protect against oxidative stress and inflammation and provide cardiovascular benefits.
Astaxanthin in cardiovascular health and disease. Astaxanthin was administered to subjects at a daily dose of 6 mg for 4 weeks, and the pupillary constriction ratio before and after astaxanthin supplementation was measured by TriIRIS C The change in subjective symptoms after supplementation was examined by a questionnaire. Dosing guidance This product should not be used as a substitute for a balanced diet. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult their doctor before taking any food supplement.
Keep out of the reach of children and away from sunlight. For intensive support, the dose can be increased to 4 capsules daily. For optimal absorption, astaxanthin should be taken with fats and immediately after meals. Do not exceed the above doses unless advised by a healthcare practitioner. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.
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