Jump to navigation Skip to Content. Carpophilus, also known as driedfruit beetles, are a worldwide pest of fruits, both pre- and post-harvest, and grains. Driedfruit beetles attack a wide variety of hosts including stone fruit, persimmons, fallen citrus, apples and figs. Adult carpophilus can cause feeding damage on ripening stone fruit and is a vector of the fungal disease brown rot. Adult Carpophilus are small at around 3mm long, oblong shaped beetles with short wing covers such that the end of the abdomen is not covered and have clubbed antennae. They can be black, brown or mottled yellow.
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Most species of sap beetles are attracted to the wounds of trees where they feed on sap. However, the habits of the Nitidulidae are quite variable Parsons Sap beetles have been found in various habitats feeding on flowers, fruits, sap, fungi, decaying and fermenting plant tissues or dead animal tissue Parsons , Hayashi Although there are many species of sap beetles, only several species are known agricultural pests of field and stored products.
These include the dusky sap beetle Carpophilus lugubris Murray on field and sweet corn; the corn sap beetle, Carpophilus dimidiatus on field corn; the complex Carpophilus dimidiatus F. Sap beetles are often considered minor pests but the presence of large numbers of sap beetles on a host plant can prove economic in terms of crop damage caused by the feeding beetles, but impact on crop value is primarily due to the contamination of products ready for sale by adults and larvae.
In addition to damage caused by feeding, sap beetles have also been recognized as vectors of fungi Dowd Figure 1. Adult Glischrochilus quadrisignatus Say , a picnic beetle. Figure 2. Adult Carpophilus lugubris Murray, the dusky sap beetle. Figure 3. A yellowbrown sap beetle, Epunaea luteolus Erichson , collected on strawberry. Photograph by Lyle J.
Buss , University of Florida. Figure 4. Adult Carpophilus fumatus Boheman, collected on strawberry. Sap beetles are widely occurring. More than half of the genera are cosmopolitan or nearly so Parsons An equal number are American in distribution. The New World and two of the tropicopolitan genera appear to be relatively recent arrivals from the tropics into the United States.
Six genera are endemic to North America. Twenty one genera have so far been reported in Florida. Agricultural pest species from the genera Carpophilus , Stelidota , and Glischrochilus are distributed throughout Florida.
Epuraea luteolus is reported as an introduction to Florida and is widely distributed. Adults: Adult sap beetles are variable in size, 0. The antennae are usually eleven segmented with the distal three segments forming a club which makes them easily recognized. The clubbed portion, however, is quite variable within species, being quite distinct or only slightly developed Parsons Antennal grooves are usually present.
The elytra or wing covers are entire sometimes shortened to expose two or three abdominal segments. The dorsal surface usually has uniform punctation but sometimes punctures are of different sizes. The prosternum has a process produced between the front coxae. The tarsal formula is usually and tarsi are five segmented. The first tarsal segment is of normal size, the fourth very small and the fifth the longest.
Abdominal segment VIII of males is heavily sclerotized, well raised and large. In females it is usually reduced and submembranous. The dusky sap beetle adult, Carpophilus lugubris , is about 2. The adult is uniform dull black in color. Figure 5. Picnic beetles, Glischrochilus quadrisignatus and Glischrochilus fasciatus , are about 6. The strawberry sap beetles adult, Stelidota geminata , is less than 2. Larvae: Larvae of all three genera are white pale yellow when mature with a light brown head, opposing external mouthparts and three pairs of small true thoracic legs.
The larval body is elongate, sub-cylindrical, somewhat dorsoventrally flattened, slightly sclerotized except for hard sclerotized epicranium.
The body of the larvae bears few hairs, and is equipped with hardened projections from the end of the abdomen that are species specific. Figure 6. Larva of Carpophilus lugubris Murray, the dusky sap beetle. Pupae: Pupae are white, turning cream colored and later tan before adult emergence. The pupa is typical exarate furrowed averaging 4. Figure 7. Pupa of Carpophilus lugubris Murray, the dusky sap beetle. Sap beetles are characterized by a rather short larval development and comparatively long lived adults.
This allows the sap beetles to master and to adapt to extremely different types of substrates. In temperate regions most of the species hibernate beneath logs. In the tropics, multiple generations may occur especially if there is available food material throughout the year. Information on sap beetle biology is known primarily from studies done in the north central United States, principally Illinois and Ohio where Carpophilus spp. The different species of Carpophilus are similar with respect to their biology.
However, most work has been focused on the biology of Carpophilus lugubris. Investigations carried out by Sanford and Luckman showed that in Illinois, Carpophilus lugubris is very active in fall and overwinter as adults in soil or debris near the bases of trees or stumps.
They become active around April or early May and are attracted to decomposing plant material or wounds in trees. The newly emerged females of the overwintering generation deposit eggs on or near decomposing plant material such as corn ears on or in the soil. Larvae feed on whatever is available when they emerge and eventually pupate in the soil. Adults of this first generation and those of the overwintering generation migrate in June to early sweet corn plantings shortly before or soon after it silks.
Adults feed on the silk and fallen pollen from tassels. Wherever wet pollen collects on the plant such as the leaf whorls and axils they will feed and deposit eggs. The adults are also attracted to insect and plant volatiles produced by ear-wounding damage of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea.
It was observed that adults preferred to deposit eggs on earworm frass, earworm damaged corn ears, and even smut galls when compared with undamaged ears. Figure 8. Sap beetle Carpophilus spp. Photograph by Gregg S. Nuessly, University of Florida. Figure 9. Note legs and light brown head on larvae as opposed to the maggot shape of cornsilk fly larvae. The dusky sap beetle is the predominant species on sweet corn. They pass through three instars in 14 days, drop to the ground where pupal cells are formed a few inches below the soil surface.
In summer, 28 to 30 days elapse between egg deposition and adult emergence. From July to November all stages of the insect can be found in the fields of sweet and field corn and in some decomposing fruits and vegetables especially melons. Heaviest infestation occurred during the four days preceding harvest. If population densities are high adults are likely to oviposit in any corn ears that are available regardless of maturity or in the absence of damage. The longevity and fecundity of Carpophilus lugubris adults varies.
Male longevity was reported by Sanford to be In the same study the life span of females was The average number of eggs laid per female was Three to four generations have been reported in the latitude of Illinois and two in Ohio Dowd and Nelson The number of generations encountered in the literature was found to vary and may be as result of differences in latitude, temperature, availability of suitable food sources, position of monitoring traps and some confusion with overlapping generations.
Glischrochilus quadrisignatus , commonly known as a picnic beetle, overwinters as an adult in Illinois. Hibernation sites are similar to that of Carpophilus lugubris. Picnic beetles become active on warm days in late winter or early spring. Most eggs are deposited in May. Females can oviposit up to eggs in their lifetime. Females reproduce primarily near decomposing plant material.
Eggs are deposited at random near decomposing plant material rather than on the material itself. To be suitable for oviposition and larval development, food material must be either buried in the soil or be in contact with the soil and it must be moist. Active adults of the new generation begin leaving the soil in June. They fly to fields of ripening or damaged berries, tree wounds and corn.
Adults live a long time and in late June various life stages including both the new and overwintering generation can be found together in soil. In Illinois picnic beetles have been observed feeding on the silk and pollen of undamaged corn causing primary damage and allowing subsequent entry and oviposition by the dusky sap beetle. They also invaded fields that had corn stalks damaged by the European corn borer. They were secondary invaders in fields where ears were damaged by the Japanese beetle.
Two generations were noted in Ohio the second occurring on field corn left in the field after harvest Dowd and Nelson
Dried Fruit Beetle (Carpophilus)-pest of stone fruit
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The chemical basis underlying orientation to fruit and fungal odors was investigated for the dried-fruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus L. In wind-tunnel bioassays of walking and flight response from 1. When presented in a two-choice bioassay, the yeast-inoculated banana attracted approximately twice as many beetles as did the aseptic banana. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles above these odor sources revealed a somewhat more complex and concentrated volatile profile for yeast-inoculated banana than for aseptic banana. The odor from yeast on agar had fewer components, and these were present at lower concentrations than the odors of either banana substrate.
CARPOPHILUS FUNGI PDF
Corresponding author: J. Juzwik E-mail: E-mail Address: jjuzwik fs. Sap beetles Nitidulidae are considered important overland vectors of the oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum , in the north central United States. Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi are thought to be the principal sap beetle vectors in Minnesota. Field studies using windoriented funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones of the insects were conducted during 2 years in east central Minnesota.