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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act , without the prior permission of the publisher.
Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The Publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services.
If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN pbk. Clothing trade. Latham, Barbara. Tyler, David J. C33 Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.
Background to the clothing industry Cutting Sewing Sewing machinery Garment accessories and enhancements Alternative methods of joining materials Pressing and related garment finishing techniques Technology and management of colour Clothing technology and product development Troubleshooting in the sewing room.
David J. Tyler graduated in physics from Southampton University and started working for an industrial research association serving the textiles and clothing industry. Afterwards he moved into industry as a technologist and later became a manager. It is now 20 years since the first edition of this book was published. Since that time, much has changed. Early in , I asked one of my ex-students to speak on the subject of garment technology to a current student group.
During this talk, she reflected on the changes since , when she started work in the UK industry. These thoughts are worth sharing. This was the case whether the technologist was working in the supply chain or for a retailer. Then we witnessed the great expansion of globalisation! Quality assurance activities continue, but there is much more effort given to build quality into products at the development stage. The technologist is uniquely equipped to interpret the requirements of designers and buyers, who typically do not have a technical vocabulary.
This extends to checking that the product looks right over the whole size range and helping to resolve any issues that arise. Technologists can be found assessing prototype garments alongside the buyer, appraising make-up, fit and product presentation. Any decisions arising from this will be communicated to the manufacturer who has not been involved in the fit session by the technologist. More and more, garment technologists are expected to deal with fabric information and be able to interpret test results on shrinkage, dye-fastness and other performance-related matters.
Technologists will receive submissions for sealed samples and evaluate them. With mail order business, technologists will take the lead in analysing customer returns so that appropriate action can be taken. Some garment technologists may get involved in appraising the capabilities of potential suppliers, and this is likely to incorporate aspects of ethical auditing. Some may be involved in implementing appropriate information systems, such as product data management software.
Globalisation does mean that there are two types of garment technologist: those based in retail organisations or brand owners and those based in manufacturing organisations the supply chain. The work of retail based technologists is directed to achieving conformance to quality standards and ensuring the suppliers understand what the products should be like.
Those working in the supply chain gain far more first-hand experience of problem solving, as they are working with the people, the fabrics and the machinery on a regular basis.
The language problems are only part of the story. People in different cultures may have different expectations and different judgments on what is an acceptable standard. There may be different views on what is aesthetically pleasing. Since the brand owner is setting the standard, the supply chain needs the style of communication that will help it understand the customer requirements and the consumer markets that are being served. This book has focused on the technology of clothing manufacture, leaving issues of fit and quality systems for others.
However, the technologies have changed with time, and this shift is reflected in the way different editions have been updated. In the third edition, the role of the garment technologist in new product development was introduced.
The new chapter in this edition Chapter 8 concerns the technology of colour and its management. The chapter that has seen the most change is that on alternative joining technologies Chapter 6 , because of the major expansion of interest in welded seams and the use of adhesives. Chapter 10 has been introduced on the solution of sewing problems, drawing on material previously in Chapter 3 and introducing checklists in tabular form.
The initial work on this book by Harold Carr and Barbara Latham was extensive and their contribution has always been the key to making this book useful and successful. My role in revising the book has been one of editing a proven resource and, I hope, maintaining its value within education and industry.
I am grateful to Lorraine Hall of Apparel Matters for useful discussions on developments in the industry. Raf Mulla of X-rite Inc. Tyler Clothing manufacture is an activity dominated by the need for human skills, with a great range of raw materials, product types, production technologies, production volumes, retail markets and brands. Companies range from small family businesses to multinationals.
Supply chains are typically global, with materials being sourced in many different countries. This diversity is difficult to match in any other industry. In Europe and the USA, the past 20 years have seen dramatic changes in the structure of the apparel industry.
Large-scale domestic manufacturing belongs to the past: the emerging industry has the core skills of design, product development, sourcing, logistics and supply chain management. Domestic manufacturing continues to exist, normally supplying niche markets using specialist skills. The wide variations of company size and type within the clothing industry are due to three special features of the fashion industry: Fashion requires a quick response The world of clothing incorporates a broad spectrum of products, ranging from high fashion exclusives to mass-produced commodity products.
Fashion may be couture garments, setting the trends for a season and made in small quantities at high cost. The pool of fashion houses is currently about , all of which are seeking to make an impact in the market.
Celebrity fashion has grown in importance, particularly with young people. Low-cost retailers have emerged with clothes that are fashionable but which are not designed for a long life.
At the other end of the spectrum are those clothing types normally referred to as staple. These include underwear, shirts and schoolwear,. In particular, they include the garment types where a consumer makes multiple purchases, often of exactly the same thing.
Between these extremes are the garments produced in hundreds or thousands with varying levels of style change between each batch. Consumer demand in this area is increasingly for more fashionable garments, but made to the standards of make-up and performance that are more easily achieved in high volume. Fashion trends are rarely technology led. Most designers do not have a strong element of technology in their education, courses often having a greater emphasis on creativity than on technological content.
The larger market is for retail- and manufacturer-label goods that draw inspiration from the fashion designers and much else besides. For this sector, technology is employed not primarily to do things that cannot be done on basic machinery, but to reduce costs, to improve quality and to reduce the requirement for human skill.
The technology that is applied to clothing must increasingly allow for versatility and responsiveness to market demand, except in the limited number of garment types such as shirts, where long runs will probably always be the case. This technology makes the management of clothing manufacture relatively uncertain in respect of output, quality and delivery. It makes economies of scale small, except sometimes in the cutting room.
The technology must also cope with a continuous input of products which vary in colour, fabric, shape, feature and size, changing even more frequently to meet opportunities in a competitive marketplace.
The point which will be made throughout this book is that the levels of technology used in clothing manufacture are closely related to the quantity and length of manufacturing run of a style of garment that is made.
The clothing industry is labour intensive and has a relatively low requirement for fixed capital Entry into the clothing industry is relatively easy.
A new entrepreneur needs primarily design flair, a niche in the market, some working capital, but only a small amount of fixed capital. The reason for this relates to the simplicity of the central process in clothing manufacture, which is sewing. Although fabric must be cut before it can be sewn, and pressed after it has been sewn, it is the process of sewing that dominates the output of a clothing factory, however large or small it is.
The sewing machine is no more than a power-operated needle, with other mechanisms in synchronisation, which produces a series of stitches continually. All the rest is left to the operator. The operator controls the size of the stitch, the tension of the sewing threads and the rate of stitch formation. The operator controls the shape of the sewing line and hence the shape of the finished garment part, as well as the matching and fitting of one ply against another. In addition, the operator must interpret instructions on a work ticket about different styles, have the knowledge to thread up the machine correctly, often a highly complex process, and be able to judge acceptable quality during and after the operation.
Thus, apart from a small number of operations where some form of automatic machine can be used, the operations in clothing manufacture are largely operator-controlled. This does not apply to quite the same extent in cutting and pressing. This is not, however, as significant as the fact that however sophisticated the engineering of stitch formation, its time requirement is only about one-fifth of the time of the average sewing operation.
The other four-fifths are occupied in activities such as preparing the fabric to be sewn, trimming, folding, creasing, marking, disposal after sewing and bundling. These activities are often referred to as ancillary handling. In fact, they are the core of the typical clothing operation. The reasons for the continuing dominance of the human hand stem largely from the nature of the raw materials used in clothing. First, fabrics are limp: in particular, they bend in all directions.
It is therefore much more difficult and expensive to invent jigs and automatic equipment for performing sewing operations than it is for operations on the rigid materials used in other industries.
Carr and Latham's Technology of Clothing Manufacture, 4th Edition
You are currently using the site but have requested a page in the site. Would you like to change to the site? David J. Tyler Editor. The processes of modern clothing manufacture are explained here, alongside the equipment used.