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Briefly, I propose the analysis from 1 key texts, 2 the papers presented at events, 3 the framework of research conducted at universities and 4 the initiatives of teachers in Basic Education. Finally, I hope to indicate what, at least today, marks something specific in the Digital History made in Brazil. The idea outlined above is made more complex by the fact that probably when it comes to Digital History in Brazil, it is not Universities, that induce innovation in the use of digital resources in Education.
Neither is the Ministry of Education nor our publishing market. In Brazil, the changes are coming directly from the classroom: Basic Education teachers are the ones who are best using the Internet to retell, research and present History to their students and the non-specialized public.
One of the symptoms of this situation is the fact that our best-known history research manuals have avoided in-depth approaches to the subject. There has been very little advancement.
If we take some of the most respected Brazilian manuals chronologically, we will find almost nothing about computers, new information technologies or Internet. He is currently holding the position of Dean of Faculty Studies Maynard specialised in the history of Brazilian Republic, with a dissertation on radio broadcasting during the Dictatorship period known as Estado Novo. Alongside his academic activities, Maynard worked as an advisor and national coordinator of the Brazilian Textbooks Evaluation Program, from to , in the last five years being responsible by the first evaluations of Digital Educational Objects — the first digital didactics material in Brazil.
Nowadays, this scarcity persists. In the first book of , we can elucidate this in Luciano Figueiredo's text by the fact that, at that time, the Internet and access to personal computers were still a recent experience, taking in consideration that the network was just beginning to be used by Brazilian researchers. However, the same cannot be said of volume two, released fifteen years later. What do these works have in common? Firstly, they were organized by nationally renowned historians, supported by traditional Brazilian universities.
It is important to mention some initiatives. Two other texts, published as dictionary entries, complete the group of publications. I believe that Pedro Teles da Silveira's work, finished in , deserves mention for the effort to find a specificity for digital sources.
However, such publications, especially entries, only strive to demarcate the terrain of Digital History. They have inserted this heading in reference works. This is probably a positive sign. But it is a scenario marked by considerable limitations. This is because although most Brazilian historians use the Internet, e-mail, mailing lists, official websites, desktop publishing systems, and social media dissemination, they do not usually engage in reflections on digital resources.
Incidentally, the National Association of History Teachers, - acronym ANPUH - the largest and oldest association of Brazilian historians, does not yet have a text, manifesto or any other publication that explains the theme. If we look closely, we can say that the movements are still basically defensive.
This is what happens when one of its regional sections Rio Grande do Sul runs a campaign whose slogan is "What your teacher knows, doesn't fit into Google". The campaign, which aims to protect the teacher, ends up identifying the wrong opponent: Google. It is also symptomatic that the ANPUH, which has two academic journals, has reserved what little space it has for texts that orbit digital history for the journal intended for public of teachers, not researchers.
Still within the same association, let's now look at an overview of the national symposiums promoted by the group in the last decade. Organized by ANPUH every 2 years, the National History Symposium brings together thousands of teachers, students and researchers, in the main event among Brazilian historians. But what we had in the last symposiums? What do we find?
In , the event had panels, but nothing related to Digital History. On that occasion, movies, literature, comics and death appeared as a research subject. But not the Digital. However, it's possible to identify 7 individual papers around the theme.
In the next edition, in , were panels, and once again the theme didn't appear as a central idea in any. However, 6 papers by undergraduate and 3 by graduate students can be found. The National Symposium in had panels, but only 6 papers deal with the issue. As well as this there were about 10 works that about the theme.
And 4 individual papers on the subject. However, the increase in papers is noticeable. No less than 11 papers were identified. But despite the advances, it is still a gap-filled scenario. If the main congress of historians has been almost silent in the last decade, what can we find in the context of the Brazilian Posgraduate?
Even so, in graduate school, the situation seems to be improving. Although still incipient, the production of theses and dissertations that address the theme of Digital History has grown significantly in recent years. Only in it has overcomed the average of 3 works per year by we identified only 8 works. These are symptomatic numbers, which show the still marginal position of Digital History. After all, Brazil currently has 81 postgraduate programs in History, of which 45 are doctoral programs.
There are also 14 professional master's programs, programs aimed primarily at qualifying teachers of Basic Education When the universe is made up of the 14 existing professional master's degrees, the perspective changes. Of course, we must consider that the experience of professional master's degrees has not completed even a decade in Brazil.
Let's see what the numbers show. Podcasts, Webquests, websites, and other resources are also studied, albeit to a lesser extent. Although the works are accompanied by academics, they are mostly the result of initiatives already existing among teachers in their daily classroom practices.
The stymulus did not come from Academy, dealing with theory, but from the daily nightmare teachers face in dealing with compelling news that seduces students, steals class attention, and fits into their cell phones. So, if we want to see some real uses and experiences using Digital History approaches, it's necessary to look at basic schools in Brazil. It is, in those places that Digital History is working.
In thousands of schools, an ensemble of experiences has been carried out by teachers. But it is still an unorganized activity. There is not an indentifiable academic principle behind it. Apparently still timidly. Given the experiences listed, it can be said that there is still a long way to go. Brazilian universities and researchers will need time and resources to consolidate projects, subjects and study centers dedicated to the digital realm. In any case, it can be stated that: 1 While in Europe, research centers demonstrate consolidation and undertake initiatives to serve teachers and undergraduate students - such as the Ranke 2.
If there is anything close to full-fledged Digital History labs in Brazil today, they are in school classrooms being powered mostly by analog teachers and digital native students. And by giving up public debate and opting for closed circuits, academic historians have left Digital History adrift. In Brazil, it seems that a kind of neoludism is still strong. Demonizing social networks, Wikipedia, Google and mobile phones, academics have left the gaps for these spaces to be occupied by historians with no connection to universities, and with no commitment to the classroom.
What is the result of this? The undeniable growth of environments full of "Fake News" and revisionist arguments. It is there, in a space often overlooked by the Academy, where we can find the most consistent cases of application of Digital History in Brazil. Malerba, they are licenced professionals, though with no further ties to the Academy.
If this mismatch presented is not corrected as soon as possibl, Without it, Brazil will continue to face the primacy of those who transform the network into a no man's land, and treat history as a tool for erasing memory. Recife, Pernambuco, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, julho de Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor, Acesso em: 12 dez.
Is the Internet changing the way you think? New York: Harper Perennial, Rio de Janeiro: Graal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Elsevier, Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, CARR, Nicholas. The Bookless Libray. Is the internet changing the way you think? Maria Luiza X.
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Domínios da História