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The visual can be used to convey the attitude to the society, to propagate different ideals and create social and political context. The basis for such usage of art lies in the power of the visual to simulta- neously perceive and shape the reality.

Engaged usage of visual culture has had a very long tradition, and it has al- ways been adapted to the context in which artworks were created. At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, apart from the engaged action on behalf of the church, state, nation and political party, painters and patrons propagated different ideas on society, religion, international and inter-confessional relations.

One of significant social ideas which marked new European culture and was embedded into various juridical systems was the idea of tolerance. Tolerance is opposed to the extreme attitude, it becomes an integral part of the understanding of human rights, so it is recognized as one of the main chara- cteristics of democratic societies.

The history of the concept of human rights and tolerance can be recognized in various older social and religious systems. During the 19th cen- tury, the attitudes stemming from the ideas of human rights and tolerance became part of legislative systems. Even though Orthodox Christi- anity became established as the state religion, other religious practices were allowed. At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the idea of religious tole- rance in Serbia was clearly mirrored in the existence and construction of various religious edifices in Belgrade.

A classical work promoting tolerance was a play by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Nathan the Wise, which featured a dialogue among the members of Jewish, Christian and Islamic religion. Ideas of religious tolerance and religious pluralism were spread and propagated by means of visual culture, as well.

Antic goddes Minerva, as an allegorical personification of tolerance, was introduced by Daniel Chodowiezky. Graphic images were also made for the Patent on Tolerace Toleranzpatent , which was introduced in the Habsburg Monarchy during the second half of the 18th century by Joseph II. In the World Exhibition in Paris, in , the pavilion of Bosnia and Herzegovina had a composition with the three main religions in the country.

There were Catholic chrism, the process of sanctifying water in Orthodox Chris- tianity, and an architect — the construction of a mosque. Having been granted scholarship by the Mini- stry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbia, he started studying fine arts in St.

Petersburg, Russia, in This was when he decided to stay in Belgrade, where he obtained a prominent place in the artistic and social life in the Serbian capital. Together with his wife Beta, as of , after the death of Cyril Kutlik, he took over the manage- ment and organization of the Serbian School of Painting and the Arts and Crafts School. They were important places of artistic life of the Bavarian capital in the 19th century.

They featured personifications and emblem of art. He participated in Yugoslav artistic exhibitions in Belgrade , Sophia , Zagreb He went to France, where he died in At the end of the 19th century, the Munich art was dominated by the ideas of intel- lectual painting, which was practiced within the symbolist- secessionist painting.


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