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Hello, my name is Paul Danner. I am an ASE Ll certified master technician with 20 years of field experience in driveability diagnostics and computer systems troubleshooting. For the past 11 years I have been an instructor for Rosedale Technical Institute near Pittsburgh, PA where I developed this book for training my students.
Before entering my class students are expected to have a basic understanding of the 4 stroke engine and also some basic electrical background. Although this is important, it is not completely necessary to understand most of the topics and testing methods taught in this book. One of the main focuses in this book is what I like to call the "anti-flowchart". I hate engineer written flow charts! These are step by step procedures that some pencil pusher thinks is the best way to troubleshoot a particular problem on a car.
For the most part they don't give us technicians enough credit. They are certainly never written with speed in mind. How could they be when half of them start off with disconnecting the computer and the sensor and checking the wire for opens and shorts? Do they realize that step one could take more than a half hour to just get to the computer?
This is ridiculous! There has to be a better way! I think I have said that to myself thousands of times over the past 20 years. Well guess what, I have found a better way and I want to share it with you.
Some of my methods are a little unorthodox, but if used correctly there is no faster or more accurate method for computer systems trouble shooting than what I have outlined in this book. Do I still use engineer written flow charts? Of course, but only as a guide and almost never literally.
Maybe someday engineers will wake up and figure out that some of us can handle more information than what they are providing. Until then we must develop a more complete understanding of sensors and circuit designs. Once we have these fundamentals we will be able to troubleshoot ANY computer controlled system, not just a fuel injection computer. I even fixed my furnace at home using these same principles!
The symptom must be duplicated for an accurate diagnosis. DTCs - Check freeze frame data if available to determine the engine load and temperature set by the fault code. You must know the description and operation of the system or component before diagnosis begins. Even if you don't follow it completely you will still gather valuable information about why the code is set and what the possible causes are. This can save you significant time if you just take a look first!
This provides the catalytic converter w ith the necessary gases to properly reduce the maj or pollutants. Its primary functions are: - To keep the short term with as much correction capability as possible.
This is a rich command in response to a lean condition. This is a lean command in response to a rich condition. If the 02 sensor voltage is fixed lean below mv , the computer w ill severely richen the mixture. This will result in poor gas mileage, black smoke and poor low rpm performance. If the 02 sensor voltage is fixed rich above mv , the computer will severely lean-out the mixture.
This will result in low power and hesitation problems. In either case the eng ine will run good cold and at wide open throttle WOT because the 02 sensor is not used du ring these times.
A trouble code will Rich command limit also be set at this time. The below picture is a scan data capture of what the fuel trim numbers looked like with the new 02 sensor and the computer's memory not cleared. The computer is in the process of relearning. The new 02 is able to react and is telling the computer there is too much fuel. The computer immediately responds using the STFT command to lean-out the mixture. Just because the computer ignores the 02 sensor at WOT doesn't mean you have to.
You can use this as a guide to fuel delivery under load conditions. This will change what the follo wing data parameters PIDs look like. Look for lean exhaust and idle adaptive limit codes. You w ill be able to see and hear the water getting sucked into the intake and no you won't hurt the engin e w ith a small amount of water. Figure 3 - Remove engine oil dipstick and install a vacuum gauge on the dipstick tube. Crankcase pressure will actually increase. Lean misfire caused by vacuum leak at 5 intake runner.
B torg Teim FT Bart 1 0. This car had no lean exhaust 12 DTCs but did have an idle adaptive limit code. Misfire Diagnostics Determine which cylinder and think about the cause spark, air-fuel, compression 1. Look at the firing order and check the cylinder before the identified misfire code.
POlOl For a cold engine only misfire look for an intake manifold gasket leak. Engine SPD A misfire from a compression or ignition problem will have high HC readings. If the oil bubbles like water dripped onto a hot stove there is water in the oil.
An early head gasket failure may have no water in the oil. Perform a snap-throttle test and see if it now misfires. If it does you have a plug, wire, or coil problem. No fuel misfire, injector. D -SBS.
When the spark is occurring in relation to TDC compression. See pages 2. Each picture shows starter current. Amperage " humps" represent compression in each cylinder. As the piston approaches TDC the amperage output of the starter Ford 4. A v 1 Secondary Sync Probe 1. Ignition Timing r: A v E - - Camshaft Signal. Incorrect cam-crank relationship. Crankshaft Signal. Starter Current , :. Notice the spark coil negative voltage spike is not occurring anywhere nea r TDC as indicated by the peaks of the starter current waveform.
Short of transmission removal and flywheel inspection there is simply no other test that would verify this condition. The circuit must be loaded 1. You must have a good ground for circuit the meter. W ith a bad ground all of your test results will be wrong. Use battery ground for the negative lead whenever possible. Short to ground test 4. A voltmeter reads difference in to a known good ground.
Cu rrent can be measured on positive or negative side 2v Voltmet e r of a circu it. An ammeter must be connected in series. O Ohmmeter Testing Return 1gn1con Swlldl. With no current flow in the main battery cable there Is corroded no voltage drop. Even though this main battery cable is hot all the lime the circuit needed to be loaded oorroded cable ignition switch In the crank - Battery 12v position for the voltage drop to be seen. Because an ohmmeter does not stress or toad a circuit and there are sbll a few good strands of copper wire in this cable.
This may interfere with anti-theft systems and possibly cause a no start, no injector pulse situation. The cause was a shorted battery. Wiring diagram identification - Look at the switch and follow the wire that doesn't go to the computer. Voltmeter identification - Check voltage levels on both sides of the switch.
To identify the circuit if you cannot close the switch you would need a wiring diagram to know which of the two wires is the signal wire computer input wire. L"'C ,,.. Note: figure 1 is what a good working circuit looks like. Figure 2 Signal Voltage Fixed High regardless of switch position. Figure 3 Signal Voltage Fixed Low regard less of switch position.
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Engine Performance Diagnostics by Paul Danner
Please make sure you log in with your Username you setup with the website and not your email. Here I offer automotive diagnostic training with an emphasis on engine performance, computer controls and electrical systems troubleshooting. My specialty is engine performance diagnostics, and I have written a text book that I use for my students. It is meant to be a field manual, one that they will actually take with them when they finish school. It is full of diagnostic strategies and testing procedures. This book is available to the public as an eBook or paper book at www. In addition, I also offer a library of video resources, showing how to perform the diagnostic techniques taught both in my book and in my class.
Engine Performance Diagnostics
Welcome to world's most trustworthy automotive forum. Thread Rating: 60 Vote s - 3. Engine Performance Diagnostics by Paul Danner. Reputation: 0. See here. In case you don't know who is Paul Danner, check his channel on YouTube scannerdanner.