GODIN TEPE PDF

It's the earliest trace of beer ever discovered. Researchers just the previous year had confirmed evidence of wine from around the same time at the same site, which became a fortress on the Silk Road. But later texts from the area suggest beer was the more popular beverage in lower Mesopotamia and was drunk by common folk as well as the upper class. The discovery of residue from beer-brewing in the interior grooves of a jug from the site supported the idea that beer was the preferred fermented beverage among the Sumerians. The yellowish substance found in the grooves of the jug, which was in the Royal Ontario Collection, proved to be calcium oxalate, also known as beerstone, a common byproduct of brewing with barley.

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In the first quarter of the first millennium, nomadic cattle-herders speaking an Indo-Iranian language infiltrated the Zagros and settled among the native population.

The inhabitants of the KUR Ma-da-a "the land of the Medes " were divided into several smaller clans, and although the Assyrian kings were able to subdue some of them, they never conquered all of Media. One of the Median princes lived on a hill that is now called Godin Tepe, which dominated a fertile plain along the road from Ecbatana , the Median capital, to the west, to Behistun and beyond, to Babylonia and Assyria.

The fortified manor consisted of at least three halls reminiscent of the throne hall of Cyrus ' Palace P in Pasargadae , several storage rooms, and a comparatively small throne hall with banks on four sides. There was also a kitchen with three ovens and a drain. On the north face of the hill, the remains of a heavy wall with five bastions have been excavated. The cemetery was to the south of the ancient town. Today, it is again in use.

Although Tepe Godin offers a splendid view of the plain, the modern visitor will be slightly disappointed by the site itself. The reason is that archaeologist T. Cuyler Young Jr. He discovered that the hill contained at least nine earlier strata, going back to the Copper Age. One of these earlier towns, Godin Tepe IV, appears to have been destroyed by humans in c.

One skeleton was found under a collapsed wall; another one, with an arrow in his vertebrae, belonged to someone who died of starvation after he had become paralyzed.

Tepe Godin, map. Tepe Godin, the deep sounding. Tepe Godin, pottery from level III. Tepe Godin, store rooms.

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On the High Road: The History of Godin Tepe, Iran

The site of Godin Tepe is located in the southeastern corner of the Kangavar valley in central western Iran, at the western end of the Silk Road. Excavated by the late T. Cuyler Young Jr. On the High Road will trace the year history of this uniquely important settlement and demonstrate how, at each successive phase of occupation, the people of Godin exploited their home's position at the crossroads of cultures. The assemblage of artifacts includes over ten thousand pottery sherds and elaborately painted vessels; about seven hundred unique stone, ceramic, bone, and metal objects including jewelry, bronze drinking bowls, and clay animal figurines; some of the earliest clay tablets and sealings from Iran; and hundreds of samples of organic material and animal bone which have provided evidence for early wine and beer production. The long overdue publication of Godin will constitute a major contribution to the scholarship of the archaeology of the Near East and will provide a fitting culmination to one of the most important archaeological projects of Iranian archaeology from the last half of the 20th century. The book will also serve as a record of the lifework of former ROM director and internationally respected scholar of early Iranian history, the late T.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Godin Tepe is an archaeological site in western Iran , situated in the valley of Kangavar in Kermanshah Province. Discovered in , the site was excavated from to by a Canadian expedition headed by T. Cuyler Young Jr. The site was already inhabited as early as c. Because Godin has such a deep stratigraphy, it was decided that a related site of Seh Gabi nearby should also be studied.

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Godin Tepe

In the first quarter of the first millennium, nomadic cattle-herders speaking an Indo-Iranian language infiltrated the Zagros and settled among the native population. The inhabitants of the KUR Ma-da-a "the land of the Medes " were divided into several smaller clans, and although the Assyrian kings were able to subdue some of them, they never conquered all of Media. One of the Median princes lived on a hill that is now called Godin Tepe, which dominated a fertile plain along the road from Ecbatana , the Median capital, to the west, to Behistun and beyond, to Babylonia and Assyria. The fortified manor consisted of at least three halls reminiscent of the throne hall of Cyrus ' Palace P in Pasargadae , several storage rooms, and a comparatively small throne hall with banks on four sides. There was also a kitchen with three ovens and a drain.

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The site today covers approximately fifteen hectares. Thus the original site may have covered twenty hectares. The mound rises approximately 32 m above virgin soil. It was found on an archeological survey in sponsored by the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. A test sounding was made in , and large scale excavations were conducted in the summers of , , , and , sponsored by the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. Eleven distinct cultural phases were identified.

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