Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege b. Frege then demonstrated that one could use his system to resolve theoretical mathematical statements in terms of simpler logical and mathematical notions. One of the axioms that Frege later added to his system, in the attempt to derive significant parts of mathematics from logic, proved to be inconsistent. Nevertheless, his definitions e.
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Mind, New Series, Vol. Frege explores the cognitive phenomenon of taking something to be true. Frege eschews several commonsense uses of the word before stating that the sort of truth he wishes to discuss is that which is sought out by the sciences In an attempt to explicate the notion further, Frege gives a tentative catalog of things truth — which for the sake of discussion he assumes is a property — may be predicated of: pictures, ideas, sentences, and Thoughts.
Frege rejects the claim that truth may genuinely be predicated of pictures and ideas, for he thinks such predication requires a correspondence theory of truth, or, a theory which states that truth consists in some correspondence between a picture or idea and item in the external world.
These results lead Frege to conclude that truth is indefinable. Frege then asserts that, while we often speak of sentences as being true or false, what this talk actually consists in is ascribing truth or falsehood to the senses contents of such sentences.
And the specific sorts of senses which may be sensibly ascribed truth or falsehood are, to Frege, the Thoughts. Thoughts are, to Frege, imperceptible: none of our senses ever interacts with a Thought. Frege uses the example of a specific sensed phenomenon: while the Sun rising may be sensed, that the Sun is rising is a Thought with a truth value and is never sensed, instead being grasped by some other means. Frege argues that Thoughts may be expressed without thereby being asserted: Thoughts are expressed by propositional questions which are not assertoric as well as interrogative sentences which are assertoric , indicating that the assertion of a Thought is a separate issue from its truth value e.
Thoughts and their associated truth values exist independently of use. The final properties Frege discusses are the under- and over-determination of Thoughts by sentential content. Thoughts may both be expressed in sentences with more content than is needed to express the Thought, or not expressed at all due to a sentence lacking certain features.
Regarding the former case, Frege cites expressive and poetic words as not assisting in the expression of Thoughts; logically, such words are extraneous, whatever their function in everyday language use. Frege concludes his exploration with a discussion of the ontological status of Thoughts. As already mentioned, Frege does not think Thoughts are external, sensible objects: truth attaches to Thoughts, but not to sensed objects, and so they cannot be the same.
Frege disarms the skeptical claim that, for all we know, Ideas are all that exist. Frege levels two arguments against the claim: one, at least one independent object is needed to best explain our experiences. To Frege, selves — conscious entities that possess Ideas — cannot be explained in terms of Ideas.
He finds it is far more reasonable to posit the self as an independent object than it is to attempt an explanation of selves as specific portions of conscious content. The second argument is pragmatic: to accept the claim that only Ideas exist is to give up on all substantive inquiry, all of which assumes the existence of external objects in order to be meaningful. This is an unacceptable outcome and thus skepticism is to be rejected.
Thus, Thoughts are the bearers of truth, but do not exist as external objects nor as Ideas. This grasping in turn leads us to action; Thoughts as such have an indirect causal impact on the world. Through explaining what it is to treat something as true, Frege has discovered what he takes to be the nature of thinking more generally.
Filed under Article Summaries. How would Husserl answer to this in your opinion? Where would he agree and where would he disagree?
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He worked as a mathematics professor at the University of Jena , and is understood by many to be the father of analytic philosophy , concentrating on the philosophy of language , logic , and mathematics. Though he was largely ignored during his lifetime, Giuseppe Peano — and Bertrand Russell — introduced his work to later generations of philosophers. His contributions include the development of modern logic in the Begriffsschrift and work in the foundations of mathematics. His book the Foundations of Arithmetic is the seminal text of the logicist project, and is cited by Michael Dummett as where to pinpoint the linguistic turn. The former argues for two different types of meaning and descriptivism.
Gottlob Frege (1848—1925)
Mind, New Series, Vol. Frege explores the cognitive phenomenon of taking something to be true. Frege eschews several commonsense uses of the word before stating that the sort of truth he wishes to discuss is that which is sought out by the sciences In an attempt to explicate the notion further, Frege gives a tentative catalog of things truth — which for the sake of discussion he assumes is a property — may be predicated of: pictures, ideas, sentences, and Thoughts. Frege rejects the claim that truth may genuinely be predicated of pictures and ideas, for he thinks such predication requires a correspondence theory of truth, or, a theory which states that truth consists in some correspondence between a picture or idea and item in the external world. These results lead Frege to conclude that truth is indefinable.
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