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Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls Strix varia. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy.
Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls Strix varia -a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection.
We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.
Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits.
Mean detection probability for barred owls was Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization.
Contrast imaging studies are routinely performed in avian patients when an underlying abnormality of the gastrointestinal GI tract is suspected. Fluoroscopy offers several advantages over traditional radiography and can be performed in conscious animals with minimal stress and restraint.
Although birds of prey are commonly encountered as patients, little is known about GI transit times and contrast imaging studies in these species, especially owls. Owls are commonly encountered in zoological, educational, and wildlife settings. Fluoroscopic exposures were recorded at 5, 15, 30, 60, , , , and minutes after administration.
Overall GI transit time and transit times of various GI organs were recorded. Ventricular and small intestinal contrast filling was rapid. Median small intestinal contraction rate was 15 per minute IQR: minutes; range: minutes.
Median overall GI transit time in barred owls is more rapid than mean transit times reported for psittacine birds and red-tailed hawks Buteo jamaicensis.
Fluoroscopy is a safe, suitable method for investigating GI motility and transit in this species. We report here the assembly of a northern spotted owl Strix occidentalis caurina genome.
The genome assembly is comprised of 8, scaffolds totaling 1. We calculated the genome-wide fixation index FST of S. We examined 19 genes that encode proteins with light-dependent functions in our genome assembly as well as in that of the barn owl Tyto alba.
We present genomic evidence for loss of three of these in S. We suggest that most light-associated gene functions have been maintained in owls and their loss has not proceeded to the same extent as in other dim-light-adapted vertebrates.
Radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels Nymphicus hollandicus , Hispaniolan Amazon parrots Amazona ventralis , and barred owls Strix varia. Information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. Joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. We evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels Nymphicus hollandicus , 10 Hispaniolan Amazons Amazona ventralis , and 9 barred owls Strix varia and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections.
Hip, stifle, and intertarsal perching angles differed significantly among cockatiels, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and barred owls. The accuracy of measurements performed on straight lateral radiographic projections with superimposed limbs was not consistently superior to measurements on oblique projections with a slightly rotated pelvis. Stifle and intertarsal joint angles can be measured on radiographs by different observers with acceptable variability, but intra- and interobserver variability for hip-joint-angle measurements is higher.
Comparative food niche analysis of Strix Owls in Belarus. Three Strix species breed sympatrically in Belarus. The Tawny Owl Strix aluco is one of two commonest owl species in the country, and is distributed throughout the whole territory. Its' range overlaps widely with two other species, the Ural Owl S.
Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl Strix occidentalis. Ishak, H. An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria Plasmodium spp. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl.
We screened Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp. This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species L. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls.
Se hace un estudio a fondo de la interpolaci?? Todos los resultados obtenidos los aplicamos a la interpolaci?? Colombia, a place where different cultures came together with their art of healing. Albinism in the Great Gray Owl Strix nebulosa and other owls.
The literature pertaining to albinism in owls indicates that total and incomplete albinism has only been reported in 13 different owl species, the Great Gray Owl being the only species with more than five records.
Thus six to seven incomplete Estimation of food consumption from pellets cast by captive Ural Owls Strix uralensis. There is considerable data in the literature on the diet of the Ural Owl Strix uralensis based on pellet analysis.
Though it is possible to identify prey items by this method, the volume of food consumption is still unknown. The population of Ural Owls in Japan is declining due to the reduction of old-growth forest and the concurrent loss of We used a stratified random sampling scheme to survey 35 plots totaling km?
This paper reports on pellet samples containing identified prey items collected at six Northern Spotted Owl Strix occidentalis caurina breeding sites in the eastern portion of its range. The majority of prey biomass came from four species; northern flying squirrels Glaucomys sabrinus , bushy-tailed woodrats Age-dependent diet change, parental care and reproductive costin tawny owls Strix aluco.
Diet composition, prey mass, breeding performance and body mass of the parents of known age were recorded. Older males had a greater ability to choose alternate prey, delivered a greater mass of prey with a higher feeding frequency and achieved higher productivity than younger males when the availability of the preferred prey declined.
The reproductive cost was paid only by young parents. We suggest that the lowest breeding performance, which was observed with young parents in adverse weather conditions, may be due to both the lower ability of these younger birds to exploit alternative prey and to their poor body condition which resulted in them providing fewer resources to their offspring because of their need to provide for their own survival.
The occurrence of Fulvous Owl Strix fulvescens in the northwestern portion of the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca was determined using aural and spectrographic comparison. This record confirms the presence of Fulvous Owl in the state of Oaxaca, expanding its distribution range to the northwest by about Km, and increasing to 21 species the number of owls recorded in Oaxaca. California Spotted Owl Strix occidentalis occidentalis habitat use patterns in a burned landscape.
Fire is a dynamic ecosystem process of mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, but there is limited scientific information addressing wildlife habitat use in burned landscapes. Recent studies have presented contradictory information regarding the effects of stand-replacing wildfires on Spotted Owls Strix occidentalis and their habitat. While fire promotes heterogeneous forest landscapes shown to be favored by owls, high severity fire may create large canopy gaps that can fragment the closed-canopy habitat preferred by Spotted Owls.
We used radio-telemetry to determine whether foraging California Spotted Owls S. Our results suggested that Spotted Owls exhibited strong habitat selection within their home ranges for locations near the roost and edge habitats, and weak selection for lower fire severity patch types.
Although owls selected high contrast edges with greater relative probabilities than low contrast edges, we did not detect a statistical difference between these probabilities. Protecting forests from stand-replacing fires via mechanical thinning or prescribed fire is a priority for management agencies, and our results suggest that fires of low to moderate severity can create habitat conditions within California Spotted Owls' home ranges that are favored for foraging. The analysis was carried out by examining pellets collected at ten locations in the period from to From the pellets, 2, prey units were isolated.
The predominant prey were mammals Mammalia, Four orders of mammals were found: rodents Rodentia, insectivores Insectivora, bats Chiroptera and carnivores Carnivora.
The obtained results are in concordance with the conclusions of other studies. In the area of Slovenske gorice, the Tawny Owl is an opportunistic predator of small mammals with an emphasis on voles and mice. Prey frequencies differ significantly among some localities. Variability in proportions of prey species among localities can also be the result of sampling carried out in different seasons and variability in the population dynamics of small mammals among years.
Challenges for future research are to describe seasonal variability of the diet and to evaluate interspecific competition within the guild of night predators of small mammals: Tawny Owl, Long-eared Owl Asio otus, and Barn Owl Tyto alba, which are sympatric in this area.
Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey. Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality.
Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls S. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear.
These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.
A telemetry study of the social organization of a tawny owl Strix aluco population. The spatial dispersion and social interactions were studied in 11 neighbouring pairs of radio-tagged tawny owls Strix aluco in a deciduous wood in Denmark from The numbers and shapes of territories were stable throughout the survey and similar to a mapping made 40 years earlier.
The home The dispute rate between neighbouring pairs correlated positively with home-range overlap. Dead owners were usually replaced within months.
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